|Home » Journal papers » Volume 2, Number 1, 2015 » Makaruk, L.|
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Abstract. This article deals with pictograms which are used in the communicative space of modern English in place of phonemes, morphemes and lexemes. In the examples which are given, we see that in most cases morphemes and singular phonemes are replaced by graphical elements. With respect to the replacement of lexemes, it is mainly the verbs used in statements and questions which for which a substitution occurs. Paralinguistic units are contextually dependent and their semantics correlates with the verbal part through various types of relations. The most distinctive feature of modern multimodal discourse is the combination of signs belonging to the codes of two semiotic systems—verbal and non-verbal. Paralinguistic graphic means, which can be included in a text, modify its structure and add additional shades of meaning to it. The role and the status of pictograms have been defined. Pictograms are important textual elements in the creation of a text. Their distinctive features have been defined and their paradigmatic relations have been identified. In the process of analysing the peculiarities of pictograms, sociocultural factors have been taken into account.
Keywords: verbal means, non-verbal means, pictogram, infographics, multimodal texts, semiotic resources.
unication with other ethnic groups or recognition of the rights of others. The results of the present empirical study has shown that the students had positive underlying autostereotypes towards own ethnic group. However, there were some ethnic prejudices as to Russians, surface negative stereotypes as to Germans as members of other ethnic groups.
Keywords: ethnic tolerance, xenophobia, ethnic identity, ethnic self-consciuosness, ethnic prejudices and ethnic stereotypes, ethnophobia.
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